Membranous Nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibody-induced damage to cells that line the surface of glomerular capillaries in the kidney. This inflammatory process causes thickening and breakdown of the glomerular basement membrane, which can result in heavy and persistent proteinuria. The severity of proteinuria varies depending on the extent of kidney injury and often leads nephrotic syndrome, which can be disabling for patients. Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at risk of progressing to kidney failure.
TED, also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, or Graves’ orbitopathy, is a debilitating and painful autoimmune disease that causes eye bulging and vision change. In serious cases, TED can lead to loss of vision and blindness. The primary pathophysiology of TED is thought to occur via activating autoantibodies to TSHR on orbital fibroblasts. Stimulation of these receptors leads to downstream IGF-1R mediated inflammatory processes that cause expanded orbital tissue. This manifests clinically as eye redness, diplopia and proptosis, that can require surgical intervention to prevent or mitigate vision loss. Current treatment options include corticosteroids and the anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody teprotumumab (TEPEZZA®).